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so that the birth and moral discipline of the citizen ought to be
ordered with a view to them. In the second place, as the body
and the soul are two, we see also that there are two parts of the
soul, the rational and the irrational, and two corresponding
states, reason and appetites. And as the body is prior in order
of generation to the soul, so the irrational is prior to the rational.
Wherefore, the care of the body ought to precede that of the soul,
and the training of the appetitive part should follow, None the
less our care of it must be for the sake of the reason, and our care
of the body for the sake of the soul."* Putting this in other words:
we can distinguish three stages in individual development (i) a
period when growth is mainly physical; (z) a period when the
irrational part of soul—the appetites or passions -conies to the
fore; (3) the final period when the meaning of the whole process
is made evident by the predominance of reason. With this there
corresponds a threefold division of education : first the education
of the body, then the education of the character, and finally the
education of the intellect. The discussion of education in the
Politics was evidently intended to follow this order, but; for some
reason or other—probably the loss of the last part of the text —
the working out of the scheme ends abruptly in the middle.

So far as the education of the body is concerned, we seem to
have all that Aristotle wanted to say. For this he advocates a
training in gymnastics and in drill. The gymnastic discipline
ensures a good bodily condition ; the drill gives .skill in the use
of the bow and the javelin, and in simple military exerciser
Both of these, he insists, however, must be kept in their proper
place, and over-training be avoided. It is foolish to produce
mere athletes with dull minds, as the Spartans did. The physical
training is only a means to an end, " It is grace and not brute
strength that should count for most; for it is not the wolf or any
of the lower animals that can engage in any fine and dangemuH
contest, but the good man."f

The second training is the training of character, which depends
on the inculcation of habits. There are three factors in education,
says Aristotle, nature, habit and reason; and habit, he adds,
should precede reason, because " the appetites occur in children
from their birth, while thought and reasoning only*appear us
they grow older/' Now the appetites in themselves are neither
* vii, 15.            f viii, 4.